Search results for World Heritage Sites


‹‹‹ Previous    1 2 3 -4- 5    Next ›››

Home   >   Natural History Photography Blog   >   Search   >   World Heritage Sites
The Lamar herd of bison grazes, a mix of mature adults and young calves, Bison bison, Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming The Lamar herd of bison grazes, a mix of mature adults and young calves, Bison bison, Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming A herd of bison grazes near the Lamar River, Bison bison, Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
The Lamar herd of bison grazes, a mix of mature adults and young calves.
Image ID: 13123  
Species: American bison, Bison bison
Location: Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
The Lamar herd of bison grazes, a mix of mature adults and young calves.
Image ID: 13132  
Species: American bison, Bison bison
Location: Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
A herd of bison grazes near the Lamar River.
Image ID: 13145  
Species: American bison, Bison bison
Location: Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Bull elk, antlers bearing velvet, Gibbon Meadow. Elk are the most abundant large mammal found in Yellowstone National Park. More than 30,000 elk from 8 different herds summer in Yellowstone and approximately 15,000 to 22,000 winter in the park. Bulls grow antlers annually from the time they are nearly one year old. When mature, a bulls rack may have 6 to 8 points or tines on each side and weigh more than 30 pounds. The antlers are shed in March or April and begin regrowing in May, when the bony growth is nourished by blood vessels and covered by furry-looking velvet, Cervus canadensis, Gibbon Meadows Elk in the Gibbon River, Cervus canadensis, Gibbon Meadows, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming A rainbow appears in the mist of the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River.  At 308 feet, the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River is the tallest fall in the park.  This view is from the famous and popular Artist Point on the south side of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone.  When conditions are perfect in midsummer, a morning rainbow briefly appears in the falls, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming This photo is the top of a stack of similar images, click to see them all.
Bull elk, antlers bearing velvet, Gibbon Meadow. Elk are the most abundant large mammal found in Yellowstone National Park. More than 30,000 elk from 8 different herds summer in Yellowstone and approximately 15,000 to 22,000 winter in the park. Bulls grow antlers annually from the time they are nearly one year old. When mature, a bulls rack may have 6 to 8 points or tines on each side and weigh more than 30 pounds. The antlers are shed in March or April and begin regrowing in May, when the bony growth is nourished by blood vessels and covered by furry-looking velvet.
Image ID: 13154  
Species: Elk, Cervus canadensis
Location: Gibbon Meadows, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Elk in the Gibbon River.
Image ID: 13155  
Species: Elk, Cervus canadensis
Location: Gibbon Meadows, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
A rainbow appears in the mist of the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River. At 308 feet, the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River is the tallest fall in the park. This view is from the famous and popular Artist Point on the south side of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. When conditions are perfect in midsummer, a morning rainbow briefly appears in the falls.
Image ID: 13329  
Location: Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Morning Glory Pool has long been considered a must-see site in Yellowstone.  At one time a road brought visitors to its brink.  Over the years they threw coins, bottles and trash in the pool, reducing its flow and causing the red and orange bacteria to creep in from its edge, replacing the blue bacteria that thrive in the hotter water at the center of the pool.  The pool is now accessed only by a foot path.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Crested Pool is a blue, superheated pool.  Unfortunately, it has claimed a life.  It reaches a overflowing boiling state every few minutes, then subsides a bit before building to a boil and overflow again.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Old Faithful geyser at sunset, at peak eruption, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming This photo is the top of a stack of similar images, click to see them all.
Morning Glory Pool has long been considered a must-see site in Yellowstone. At one time a road brought visitors to its brink. Over the years they threw coins, bottles and trash in the pool, reducing its flow and causing the red and orange bacteria to creep in from its edge, replacing the blue bacteria that thrive in the hotter water at the center of the pool. The pool is now accessed only by a foot path. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13352  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Crested Pool is a blue, superheated pool. Unfortunately, it has claimed a life. It reaches a overflowing boiling state every few minutes, then subsides a bit before building to a boil and overflow again. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13355  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Old Faithful geyser at sunset, at peak eruption.
Image ID: 13361  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
A crowd enjoys watching Old Faithful geyser at peak eruption, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Riverside Geyser at peak eruption, arcing over the Firehole River.  Riverside is a very predictable geyser.  Its eruptions last 30 minutes, reach heights of 75 feet and are usually spaced about 6 hours apart.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming A visitor videotapes the eruption of Lion Geyser, with Old Faithful Inn visible in the distance.  Lion Geyser, whose eruption is preceded by a release of steam that sounds like a lion roaring, erupts just once or a few times each day, reaching heights of up to 90 feet.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming This photo is the top of a stack of similar images, click to see them all.
A crowd enjoys watching Old Faithful geyser at peak eruption.
Image ID: 13363  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Riverside Geyser at peak eruption, arcing over the Firehole River. Riverside is a very predictable geyser. Its eruptions last 30 minutes, reach heights of 75 feet and are usually spaced about 6 hours apart. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13366  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
A visitor videotapes the eruption of Lion Geyser, with Old Faithful Inn visible in the distance. Lion Geyser, whose eruption is preceded by a release of steam that sounds like a lion roaring, erupts just once or a few times each day, reaching heights of up to 90 feet. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13371  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Daisy Geyser erupting with visitors visible in the distance..  Daisy Geyser, a cone-type geyser that shoots out of the ground diagonally, is predictable with intervals ranging from 120 to over 200 minutes.  It reaches heights of 75 feet, lasts 3 to 4 minutes and rarely erupts in concert with nearby Splendid Geyser.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Sawmill Geyser erupting.  Sawmill Geyser is a fountain-type geyser and, in some circumstances, can be erupting about one-third of the time up to heights of 35 feet.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Castle Geyser erupts, reaching 60 to 90 feet in height and lasting 20 minutes.  While Castle Geyser has a 12 foot sinter cone that took 5,000 to 15,000 years to form, it is in fact situated atop geyserite terraces that themselves may have taken 200,000 years to form, making it likely the oldest active geyser in the park. Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Daisy Geyser erupting with visitors visible in the distance.. Daisy Geyser, a cone-type geyser that shoots out of the ground diagonally, is predictable with intervals ranging from 120 to over 200 minutes. It reaches heights of 75 feet, lasts 3 to 4 minutes and rarely erupts in concert with nearby Splendid Geyser. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13382  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Sawmill Geyser erupting. Sawmill Geyser is a fountain-type geyser and, in some circumstances, can be erupting about one-third of the time up to heights of 35 feet. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13385  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Castle Geyser erupts, reaching 60 to 90 feet in height and lasting 20 minutes. While Castle Geyser has a 12 foot sinter cone that took 5,000 to 15,000 years to form, it is in fact situated atop geyserite terraces that themselves may have taken 200,000 years to form, making it likely the oldest active geyser in the park. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13417  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Castle Geyser erupts with the colorful bacteria mats of Tortoise Shell Spring in the foreground.  Castle Geyser reaches 60 to 90 feet in height and lasts 20 minutes.  While Castle Geyser has a 12 foot sinter cone that took 5,000 to 15,000 years to form, it is in fact situated atop geyserite terraces that themselves may have taken 200,000 years to form, making it likely the oldest active geyser in the park. Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Grand Geyser erupts (right) with a simultaneous eruption from Vent Geyser (left).  Grand Geyser is a fountain-type geyser reaching 200 feet in height and lasting up to 12 minutes.  Grand Geyser is considered the tallest predictable geyser in the world, erupting about every 12 hours.  It is often accompanied by burst or eruptions from Vent Geyser and Turban Geyser just to its left.  Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Ledge Geyser, vents releasing steam, in the Porcelain Basin area of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Castle Geyser erupts with the colorful bacteria mats of Tortoise Shell Spring in the foreground. Castle Geyser reaches 60 to 90 feet in height and lasts 20 minutes. While Castle Geyser has a 12 foot sinter cone that took 5,000 to 15,000 years to form, it is in fact situated atop geyserite terraces that themselves may have taken 200,000 years to form, making it likely the oldest active geyser in the park. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13426  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Grand Geyser erupts (right) with a simultaneous eruption from Vent Geyser (left). Grand Geyser is a fountain-type geyser reaching 200 feet in height and lasting up to 12 minutes. Grand Geyser is considered the tallest predictable geyser in the world, erupting about every 12 hours. It is often accompanied by burst or eruptions from Vent Geyser and Turban Geyser just to its left. Upper Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13457  
Location: Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Ledge Geyser, vents releasing steam, in the Porcelain Basin area of Norris Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13484  
Location: Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
White Dome Geyser rises to a height of 30 feet or more, and typically erupts with an interval of 15 to 30 minutes.  It is located along Firehole Lake Drive, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming This photo is the top of a stack of similar images, click to see them all. Pink Cone Geyser erupts.  Pink Cone Geyser reaches 30 feet in height, and has highly variable interval and duration.  It is a cone-type geyser and its cone has a pinkish tint due to manganese oxide in it.  Firehole Lake Drive, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Park, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming This photo is the top of a stack of similar images, click to see them all. Grand Prismatic Spring displays a stunning rainbow of colors created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges.  The blue water in the center is too hot to support any bacterial life, while the outer orange rings are the coolest water.  Grand Prismatic Spring is the largest spring in the United States and the third-largest in the world.  Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
White Dome Geyser rises to a height of 30 feet or more, and typically erupts with an interval of 15 to 30 minutes. It is located along Firehole Lake Drive.
Image ID: 13540  
Location: Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Pink Cone Geyser erupts. Pink Cone Geyser reaches 30 feet in height, and has highly variable interval and duration. It is a cone-type geyser and its cone has a pinkish tint due to manganese oxide in it. Firehole Lake Drive, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Park.
Image ID: 13551  
Location: Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Grand Prismatic Spring displays a stunning rainbow of colors created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges. The blue water in the center is too hot to support any bacterial life, while the outer orange rings are the coolest water. Grand Prismatic Spring is the largest spring in the United States and the third-largest in the world. Midway Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13573  
Location: Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Grand Prismatic Spring displays brilliant colors along its edges, created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges.  The outer orange and red regions are the coolest water in the spring, where the overflow runs off.  Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Grand Prismatic Spring displays brilliant colors along its edges, created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges.  The outer orange and red regions are the coolest water in the spring, where the overflow runs off.  Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Steam rises above the Midway Geyser Basin, largely from Grand Prismatic Spring and Excelsior Geyser. The Firehole River flows by, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Grand Prismatic Spring displays brilliant colors along its edges, created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges. The outer orange and red regions are the coolest water in the spring, where the overflow runs off. Midway Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13587  
Location: Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Grand Prismatic Spring displays brilliant colors along its edges, created by species of thermophilac (heat-loving) bacteria that thrive in narrow temperature ranges. The outer orange and red regions are the coolest water in the spring, where the overflow runs off. Midway Geyser Basin.
Image ID: 13591  
Location: Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Steam rises above the Midway Geyser Basin, largely from Grand Prismatic Spring and Excelsior Geyser. The Firehole River flows by.
Image ID: 13605  
Location: Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Orange Spring Mound.  Many years of mineral deposition has built up Orange Spring Mound, part of the Mammoth Hot Springs complex, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming New Blue Spring and its travertine terraces, part of the Mammoth Hot Springs complex, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Lamar Valley, summer. The Lamar Valleys rolling hills are home to many large mammals and are often called Americas Serengeti, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Orange Spring Mound. Many years of mineral deposition has built up Orange Spring Mound, part of the Mammoth Hot Springs complex.
Image ID: 13614  
Location: Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
New Blue Spring and its travertine terraces, part of the Mammoth Hot Springs complex.
Image ID: 13623  
Location: Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Lamar Valley, summer. The Lamar Valleys rolling hills are home to many large mammals and are often called Americas Serengeti.
Image ID: 13647  
Location: Lamar Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA
 
Upper Yosemite Falls near peak flow in spring.  Yosemite Falls, at 2425 feet tall (730m) is the tallest waterfall in North America and fifth tallest in the world.  Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California Bridalveil Falls plummets 620 feet (200m).  Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California Bridalveil Falls plummets 620 feet (200m).  Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California
Upper Yosemite Falls near peak flow in spring. Yosemite Falls, at 2425 feet tall (730m) is the tallest waterfall in North America and fifth tallest in the world. Yosemite Valley.
Image ID: 16068  
Location: Yosemite Falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA
 
Bridalveil Falls plummets 620 feet (200m). Yosemite Valley.
Image ID: 16077  
Location: Bridalveil Falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA
 
Bridalveil Falls plummets 620 feet (200m). Yosemite Valley.
Image ID: 16080  
Location: Bridalveil Falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA
 


Natural History Photography Blog posts (11) related to World Heritage Sites



Related Topics:



Keywords:

Page:   ‹‹‹ Previous   1 2 3 -4- 5   Next ›››   New Search
Most Common Categories Appearing Among These Images:
Animal  >  Endangered / Threatened Species  >  Marine  >  Galapagos Sea Lion
Animal  >  Endemic Species  >  Galapagos Islands
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Bear  >  Grizzly Bear
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Bison
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Coyote
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Elk
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Elk  >  Bugling Elk
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Elk  >  Bull elk
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Elk  >  Elk Rut
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Moose
Animal  >  Mammal  >  Pronghorn Antelope
Animal  >  Pinniped  >  Galapagos Sea Lion
Animal  >  Shark  >  Hammerhead Shark  >  Scalloped Hammerhead
Gallery  >  Bird
Gallery  >  California
Gallery  >  Galapagos Islands
Gallery  >  Icon
Gallery  >  Landscape
Gallery  >  Landscape Astrophotography
Gallery  >  New Work August 2013
Gallery  >  New Work May 2012
Gallery  >  Redwood National Park
Gallery  >  Sharks
Gallery  >  Sierra Nevada
Gallery  >  Travel
Gallery  >  Waterfalls
Gallery  >  Wildlife Portraits
Gallery  >  Yellowstone National Park
Gallery  >  Yosemite National Park
Location  >  Oceans  >  Pacific  >  Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)  >  Above Water
Location  >  Oceans  >  Pacific  >  Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)  >  Underwater
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Redwood National Park (California)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  Geothermal Features  >  Geyser  >  Old Faithful Geyser
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  Geothermal Features  >  Geyser  >  Riverside Geyser
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  Geothermal Features  >  Spring  >  Grand Prismatic Spring
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  Lamar Valley
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  Madison River
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  River / Waterfall  >  Firehole River
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)  >  River / Waterfall  >  Lower Yellowstone Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite High Country
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite High Country  >  Vernal Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Bridalveil Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  El Capitan
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Fern Spring
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Half Dome
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Nevada Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Vernal Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Yosemite Falls
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  World Heritage Sites  >  Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  World Heritage Sites  >  Redwood National Park (USA)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  World Heritage Sites  >  Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (San Ignacio Lagoon Mexico)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  World Heritage Sites  >  Yellowstone National Park (USA)
Location  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  World Heritage Sites  >  Yosemite National Park (USA)
Location  >  USA  >  California
Location  >  USA  >  California  >  Redwood National Park
Location  >  USA  >  Wyoming  >  Yellowstone National Park
Location  >  World  >  Ecuador  >  Galapagos Islands  >  Bartolome Island
Location  >  World  >  Ecuador  >  Galapagos Islands  >  Darwin Island (Culpepper)
Location  >  World  >  Ecuador  >  Galapagos Islands  >  North Seymour Island
Location  >  World  >  Ecuador  >  Galapagos Islands  >  Wolf Island (Wenman)
Natural World  >  Geothermal Features  >  Geyser
Natural World  >  Geothermal Features  >  Spring
Natural World  >  Mountain and Peak  >  El Capitan (Yosemite)
Natural World  >  Mountain and Peak  >  Fletcher Peak
Natural World  >  Mountain and Peak  >  Vogelsang Peak
Natural World  >  Protected Threatened and Significant Places  >  National Parks  >  Yosemite National Park (California)  >  Yosemite Valley  >  Yosemite Falls
Natural World  >  Waterfall  >  Bridalveil Falls (Yosemite)
Natural World  >  Waterfall  >  Lower Yellowstone Falls (Yellowstone)
Natural World  >  Waterfall  >  Yosemite Falls (Yosemite)
Portfolio
Subject  >  Inspirational
Subject  >  Technique  >  Night / Time Exposure
Subject  >  Technique  >  Star Trails

Species Appearing Among These Images:
Alces alces
Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Antilocapra americana
Arctocephalus galapagoensis
Bison bison
Branta canadensis
Canis latrans
Caranx sexfasciatus
Carcharhinus galapagensis
Cervus canadensis
Cervus canadensis roosevelti
Cornus nuttallii
Eschrichtius robustus
Fregata magnificens
Marmota flaviventris
Odocoileus hemionus
Rhincodon typus
Sequoia sempervirens
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Spheniscus mendiculus
Sphyrna lewini
Sula granti
Ursus arctos horribilis
Zalophus californianus wollebacki
Zalophus californianus wollebaeki

Natural History Photography Blog posts (11) related to World Heritage Sites
Photo of the Ramesseum
Photo of Egyptian Hieroglyphics
Photos of the Great Hypostyle Hall, Karnak, Egypt
Photo of a Galapagos Tortoise
Photo of Crested Pool, Yellowstone National Park
Photo of Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park
Photos of Bridalveil Falls, Yosemite National Park
Visiting Yellowstone National Park
Photo of Lewis Falls, Yellowstone National Park
Photo of Moose Falls, Yellowstone National Park
Whale Shark Photo, Darwin Island, Galapagos

Search for:     

Updated: December 14, 2017